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本文摘要:This is the story of two deals and the future of healthcare in the UK. 这是一个关于两笔交易以及英国医疗卫生事业未来的故事。

This is the story of two deals and the future of healthcare in the UK. 这是一个关于两笔交易以及英国医疗卫生事业未来的故事。The first was made in September 2015, under which three UK hospitals in the Royal Free NHS Trust handed the identifiable patient records of more than 2m Londoners to DeepMind, an artificial intelligence company wholly owned by Google.第一笔交易已完成于2015年9月,根据这项交易,三家隶属于英国皇家权利NHS信托基金会(Royal Free NHS Trust)的医院将多达200万名伦敦市民的可辨识个人身份的病历转交了DeepMind,谷歌(Google)全资享有的一家人工智能公司。With the company riding high on breakthroughs in the fields of game play and image recognition, DeepMind Health was launched in February. 随着DeepMind在游戏竞技以及图像识别领域大大获得重大突破,DeepMind Health在今年2月应运而生。


Strangely for an AI company with no healthcare experience, DeepMind Health’s inaugural project claimed it had nothing to do with AI. 而对一家没医疗经验的人工智能公司来说极为奇怪的是,DeepMind Health的首个项目堪称与人工智能没任何关系。Rather, it involved developing Streams, a mobile app, to integrate data and co-ordinate push alerts concerning acute kidney injury, 忽略,该项目牵涉到研发一款取名为Streams的移动应用于,用作有关急性肾脏损伤的统合数据以及协商启动时通报。

a serious condition affecting up to one in six National Health Service patients.在英国国家医疗服务体系(NHS)的病人中,不存在这一相当严重病情的病人比例低约六分之一。In April, an investigation by New Scientist revealed the scale of DeepMind’s data hoard — a five-year superset, covering almost every patient passing through Royal Free — as well as the commercial terms: essentially, that there were none. 今年4月,由《新的科学家》(New Scientist)展开的一项调查说明了了DeepMind海量数据的规模——这是一个时间跨度长达5年的超大子集,涵括了皇家权利基金会系统内的完全所有病人——调查还说明了了这些数据的商业条款:基本上没任何商业条款。


The claimed basis for sharing the data was implied consent for direct clinical care for kidney injury. 这一数据共享的公开发表依据是对肾脏损伤展开必要临床医治的默示表示同意。The problem is that the data set extended well beyond those who will be monitored or treated for this condition: it extended hospital-wide, raising issues about proper compliance with data protection, privacy and medical confidentiality rules. 问题在于,数据集的覆盖面相比之下多达了因这一病症而被监测或化疗的群体:数据伸延至整个医院,由此引向了有关如何合理遵从数据保护、隐私以及医疗保密等方面规定的问题。Perhaps even more importantly, engaging with citizens about the deal and exploring the desirability of open, competitive, forward-looking service procurement beyond Google, seemed not to enter consideration.也许更加最重要的是,与市民认识、交流对于此项交易的观点,以及在谷歌之外探寻公开发表、竞争性、前瞻的服务订购的是非程度,或许未被划入考虑到范围。

The second deal was rather more proactive. 第二项交易更为主动大力。Last month, perhaps in anticipation of regulatory action after a year of silence (the first deal is the subject of an investigation by the UK Information Commissioner’s Office and a review by the National Data Guardian, plus DeepMind’s self-styled independent reviewers), a five-year agreement was signed.上月,也许是预见了在一年的沉寂之后将有监管措施实施(第一笔交易受到了英国信息专员办公室(UK Information Commissioner’s Office)的调查以及国家身体健康和医疗数据守护者(National Data Guardian)的评估,DeepMind自居的独立国家评估方也参予了评估),双方更进一步签订了一项为期五年的合作协议。This accord contains a remarkable pivot. 这项协议包括了一个有一点注目的巨变。

After a year of structuring the whole Trust-wide data set, DeepMind has developed a software interface that allows multiple conditions to be monitored and provides a platform for an open innovation ecosystem. 在花费了一年时间设计整个基金会系统的数据集结构之后,DeepMind研发了一个软件界面,可用作监测多种病情,并为对外开放创意的生态系统获取一个平台。Open, that is, except that the platform is strictly owned and controlled by DeepMind under a time-bound licence that prevents the Royal Free hospital working directly with any other provider. 不过,这种对外开放是有限度的——整个平台由DeepMind根据一项有时间容许的许可协议(制止皇家权利医院与其他任何提供商必要合作)严苛享有和掌控。DeepMind, for its part, wishes to enable a community of innovators to develop niche applications over the top of data acquired through the first deal.DeepMind期望借以构成一个创新者社区,在通过第一项交易取得的数据基础上研发细分应用于。Many of DeepMind’s aspirations are laudable, particularly its promises to bring cutting-edge provenance, transparency and audit to data flows. DeepMind有不少有一点赞赏的志向,尤其是该公司允诺将把尖端的来源检验、透明化以及审核技术应用于到数据流上。


However, it is critical that this company’s dealmaking does not involve special treatment, particularly given it can only do much of what it does because of the money and power of Google, its patron, which has long coveted the healthcare market. 但有一点十分关键,该公司的商业交易不不应涉及类似待遇,特别是在是考虑到该公司之所以能积极开展其目前展开的绝大部分业务,靠的是来自其母公司谷歌的资金和影响力,而谷歌长期以来仍然对医疗卫生市场垂涎三尺。Until now, DeepMind’s deals have attracted no comment from those with oversight of sensitive data processing, despite clear questions about both the direct care justification for processing and where the control of data-processing lies.直到现在,负责管理监督脆弱数据处理的涉及部门也没对DeepMind的交易公开发表评论,尽管在两方面(以必要医治为理由的数据处理,以及对数据处理的管控从何反映)显著不存在问题。

These deals matter as a litmus test of our institutions and our instincts, and whether we can advance technologically without evading due process and hard-earned rights. 这些交易意义根本性,是检验我们的机构、我们的直觉、以及我们能否获得技术变革而不规避正当程序和来之不易的权利的试金石。The primary limits to promising advances in machine learning are access to data and computing power. 机器学习获得根本性发展所面对的主要容许在于数据的可获得性以及计算能力。The Royal Free deals do a civic disservice if they undervalue publicly funded data sets, while failing to consider the long-term consequences of giving advance access to powerful private prospectors. 皇家权利基金会的交易对公众有利——如果它们高估了源自公共资金反对的数据集的价值,同时也并未考虑到给与实力强大的私营拓展企业再行进优势的长年后果。DeepMind may be a worthy partner but it must prove itself as such so that the future of healthcare is genuinely competitive, open, fair and in the public interest.DeepMind也许是一个有价值的合作伙伴,但该公司必需证明自己显然如此,以保证医疗卫生事业的未来确实具备竞争性、对外开放、公平以及合乎公众利益。